Inn2 + Newsx HOWTO <author>Filippo Panessa A.K.A. Kalem, <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt> <date>ver. 0.2, 28 settembre 2000 <abstract> Questo HOWTO vi aiuterà a configurare Inn2 e Newsx per la lettura delle news offline. Per qualsiasi domanda, suggerimento, commento o correzione, scrivere a Filippo Panessa <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt>. </abstract> <toc> <sect>Introduzione <p> <sect1>Nessuna garanzia <p> Ho scritto questo documento con tutta l'accuratezza possibile ma se usate le informazioni in esso contenute lo fate a vostro rischio e pericolo. In nessun caso potrò essere ritenuto responsabile di eventuali danni causati dall'utilizzo del presente HOWTO. <sect1>Copyright <p> Copyright (c) 2000 Filippo Panessa. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". <p> Copyright (c) 2000 Filippo Panessa. E' garantito il permesso di copiare, distribuire e/o modificare questo documento seguendo i termini della GNU Free Documentation License, Versione 1.1 o ogni versione successiva pubblicata dalla Free Software Foundation; senza Sezioni non Modificabili, con nessun Testo Copertina, e con nessun Testo Retro di Copertina. Una copia della licenza è acclusa nella sezione intitolata "GNU Free Documentation License". <sect1>GNU Free Documentation License <p> <p> GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.1, March 2000 <p> Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. <p> 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text. 2. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies. 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. 4. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version: A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five). C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version. 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements." 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate. 8. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail. 9. TERMINATION You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. <sect1>Distribuzione <p> L'ultima versione di questo documento è reperibile a questo indirizzo: <itemize> <item><tt><url url=""></tt> </itemize> <sect1>Revisioni <p> <itemize> <item>ver. 0.1 11 settembre 2000 <p> Inizio stesura del presente HOWTO <item>ver. 0.2 28 settembre 2000 <p> Aggiunto l'intero testo della licenza FDL <p> Aggiunta la sezione "Revisioni" </itemize> <sect> Perchè ? <p> <sect1> Perchè usare Inn ? <p> Esistono software molto più semplici da configurare per la lettura offline delle news, come ad esempio leafnode. Tuttavia, questi pacchetti software soffrono nella distribuzione delle news in una LAN con diversi clients. Se avete un solo PC, se non vi da fastidio perdere articoli saltuariamente, se non vi interessa una buona velocità nel download degli articoli, se non volete spendere tempo nella configurazione di Inn potete tranquillamente usare leafnode. Se invece avete la necessità di configurare un newsgroup locale per i vostri utenti, o più semplicemente volete il massimo dal vostro server news locale anche se magari non siete amministratori di una LAN, Inn e Newsx sono la soluzione. <p> Notate che Inn è utilizzato dai maggiori provider nella distribuzione delle news su InterNet : <tscreen><verb> [filippo@kalem ~ ]$ telnet 119 Trying Connected to Escape character is '^]'. 200 InterNetNews NNRP server INN 2.2.2 13-Dec-1999 ready (posting ok). </verb></tscreen> E non vi nascondo una certa soddisfazione nel leggere : <tscreen><verb> [filippo@kalem ~ ]$ telnet kalem 119 Trying Connected to kalem. Escape character is '^]'. 200 kalem InterNetNews server INN 2.2.2 13-Dec-1999 ready </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Perchè usare Newsx ? <p> Sicuramente perchè è in grado di offrire un'ottima velocità di download senza ricorrere all'apertura di più connessioni in parallelo. Inoltre è in grado di filtrare lo spam sia con l'utilizzo di un filtro esterno quale cleanfeed, sia con software aggiuntivi come NoCeM. <sect>Requisiti <p> Tutto quello di cui avete bisogno è una Linux-box con connessione ad InterNet ed accesso ad un server NNTP remoto. <sect1>I pacchetti software <p> Se siete fortunati possessori di una Debian, potete tranquillamente installare Inn dal pacchetto relativo, cercadolo nel CD della vostra distribuzione o usando il comando apt-get. Dopo aver configurato apt basterà semplicemente digitare : <tscreen><verb> su apt-get install inn2 exit </verb></tscreen> <p> Dopo il dowload avrete Inn correttamente installato e pronto per essere configurato. <p> Purtroppo Newsx fornito con la Debian 2.2r0 non è compilato per Inn2. Ho prontamente risolto la questione sviluppando un pacchetto aggiuntivo non ufficiale. Lo potete reperire presso <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt>. <sect1>Dove reperire Inn ? <p> L'archivio online ufficiale di Inn è <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt>, in particolare nella directory networking/news/nntp/inn. Consiglio pero' di utilizzare il mirror Europeo per il download <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt>. Inoltre Inn-2.x è disponibile in formato rpm e può essere scaricato dal sito ftp della vostra distribuzione. <sect1>Dove reperire Newsx ? <p> Il sito ufficiale di Newsx è <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt> dal quale potete scaricare sia i sorgenti che i pacchetti rpm precompilati. Ho sviluppato anche i pacchetti Newsx rpm, reperibili presso <tt><htmlurl url="" name=""></tt>. <sect>Configurare Inn <p> Tutti i file di configurazione di Inn risiedono in <tscreen><verb> /etc/news </verb></tscreen> quindi spostatevi in questa directory e armatevi del vostro editor di testi preferito. <sect1>Il file inn.conf <p> Nel file inn.conf risiede un considerevole numero di opzioni. Ci occuperemo di configurare le più importanti vedendole in dettaglio : <itemize> <item>server: <p> In questo campo deve essere specificato il nome del server NNTP locale. <item>fromhost: <p> Cosa mettere nell'header <tt>From</tt>. Se non specificato il default sarà l'FQDN. <item>pathhost: <p> Cosa mettere negli header <tt>Path</tt> e <tt>Xref</tt>. Anche qui il default è l'FQDN. <item>organization: <p> Overwrite dell'header <tt>Organization</tt>, se non abilitata la variabile <tt>$ORGANIZATION</tt>. <item>moderatormailer: <p> Dove spedire gli articoli per i newsgroups moderati, se non viene trovato un corrispettivo nel file moderators. </itemize> <p> Quindi dovete modificare questi campi nel seguente modo : <tscreen><verb> fromhost: kalem moderatormailer: pathhost: kalem organization: Kalem Inc. server: kalem </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Il file moderators <p> In questo file devono essere specificati gli indirizzi per il post degli articoli verso i gruppi moderati. <tscreen><verb> # Per la gerarchia linux.* linux.* # Per la gerarchia it.* it.* # Per la gerarchia gnu.* gnu.* # Per i newsgroups di cui non trova corrispondenza * </verb></tscreen> Non alterate questo file se non sapete cosa state facendo. Gli articoli per i newsgroups moderati potrebbero essere spediti ad indirizzi errati ! <sect1>Il file nnrp.access <p> Qui dovete specificare i nomi degli hosts a cui e' permesso collegarsi al vostro server Inn. Inoltre è possibile specificare per ogni host remoto userID, password e permessi in lettura/post. Ad esempio: <tscreen><verb> stdin:Read Post:::* localhost:Read Post:::* Post:::* kalem:Read Post:::* </verb></tscreen> permette il post degli articoli al solo host kalem, con permessi di lettura e post. <p> Se avete una LAN dovete specificare l'accesso al server locale per ogni client. Oppure, se avete a disposizione un server DNS locale, abilitare tutta la sottorete con l'uso di una wildcard. <tscreen><verb> stdin:Read Post:::* localhost:Read Post:::* Post:::* *.kalem:Read Post:::* </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Il file newsfeeds <p> Questo e' il file piu' complicato di Inn, ma con un pò di pazienza è facile capire i meccanismi base. Ipotizzando come server remoto da cui scaricare le news, avremo: <tscreen><verb> ME:*,!junk,!control*,!local*:: tin/\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: crosspost:*:Tc,Ap,WR:/usr/lib/news/bin/crosspost controlchan!\ :!*,control,control.*,!control.cancel\ :Tc,Wnsm:/usr/lib/news/bin/controlchan </verb></tscreen> <p> Vediamo i particolari del file : <itemize> <item>ME <p> Serve per distinguere i gruppi locali e di controllo (junk, control*, locale*) da quelli che risiedono sul server NNTP remoto. <item>crosspost <p> Crea un link nello spool (<tt>/var/spool/news/articles</tt>) per gli articoli spediti a più newsgroups. L'utilizzo vi potrà far risparmiare spazio sul disco. <item>controlchan <p> Usa un programma esterno per processare i messaggi di controllo dei newsgroups locali control.*, ad eccezione di control.cancel </itemize> Tenete presente che se il server NNTP remoto dal quale volete scaricare le news è Infostrada, dovete sostituire le righe <tscreen><verb> tin/\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: </verb></tscreen> con <tscreen><verb>\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: </verb></tscreen> Per Tiscali invece : <tscreen><verb>\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Il file expire.ctl <p> Inn si occuperà di controllare periodicamente la cache degli articoli scaricati. Le regole per la durata degli articoli in cache vengono definite in questo file. <tscreen><verb> /remember/:10 # Default di 10 giorni *:A:1:10:30 # Newsgroup affollato di poco interesse # # Cancella la cache degli articoli # con più di 10 giorni di giacenza it.comp.os.linux.iniziare:A:1:10:30 # Newsgroup di alto interesse # # Cancella la cache degli articoli # con più di 45 giorni di giacenza it.comp.os.linux.annunci:A:1:45:60 </verb></tscreen> <p> Il file è di facile interpretazione, ma vediamolo comunque in dettaglio : <itemize> <item><tt>/remember/:giorni</tt> <p> Il numero <tt>giorni</tt> specifica per quanto tempo gli articoli devono rimanere in cache, anche dopo essere stati individuati come vecchi. <item><tt>pattern:modflag:keep:default:purge</tt> <descrip> <tag/pattern/ Specifica il newsgroup sul quale applicare la regola. Può essere accompagnato da wildcard <tag/modflag/ E' un flag per limitare la regola. In particolare <tt>A</tt> significa tutti <tag/keep/ Quanti giorni mantenere un articolo prima di rimuoverlo dalla cache <tag/default/ Quanto mantenere un articolo se non è presente nessun header Expire <tag/purge/ Tempo massimo giacenza articoli. Oltre questo numero di giorni gli articoli verranno cancellati comunque </descrip> </itemize> <sect1>Regole di cron <p> Per poter fare in modo che gli articoli vecchi vengano cancellati dalla cache è necessario lanciare ogni giorno lo script <tt>/usr/lib/news/bin/news.daily</tt>. <bf>Attenzione :</bf> è importante che questa operazione venga eseguita come utente news, quindi rispettate rigorosamente la procedura elencata. Avete due possibilità : <itemize> <item>Ricordarvi ogni giorno di lanciare il comando : <tscreen><verb> su su news -c "/usr/lib/news/bin/news.daily" exit </verb></tscreen> <item>Inserire una regola in cron lanciando il comando : <tscreen><verb> crontab -e -u news </verb></tscreen> </itemize> <p> e inserendo le seguenti righe : <tscreen><verb> SHELL=/bin/sh PATH=/usr/lib/news/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin 15 0 * * * news news.daily expireover lowmark delayrm </verb></tscreen> Nel secondo caso cron si occuperà di lanciare giornalmente lo script. <sect1>Riavviare Innd <p> A questo punto Inn è configurato. Basterà riavviarlo per confermare i cambiamenti fatti. <p> Quindi, se avete una Debian : <tscreen><verb> su /etc/init.d/inn2 restart exit </verb></tscreen> Se avete una RedHat o un'altra distribuzione simile : <tscreen><verb> su /etc/rc.d/init.d/innd restart exit </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Creare i newsgroups con ctlinnd <p> Riavviato innd, non vi resta altro che creare i gruppi che vi interessa scaricare. Quindi, se non se è già stato fatto dallo script di installazione dei pacchetti, create prima di tutto i newsgroups locali che serviranno per i controlli e per i test : <bf>Attenzione :</bf> è importante che questa operazione venga eseguita come utente news, quindi rispettate rigorosamente la procedura elencata. <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd control n /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd control.cancel n /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd local.test y /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd junk y exit exit </verb></tscreen> <p> ed infine create due gruppi che scaricherete da InterNet : <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd it.comp.os.linux.annunci m /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd it.comp.os.linux.iniziare y exit exit </verb></tscreen> <p> Notate l'uso del flag <tt>m</tt> in coda alla richiesta di creazione icol.annunci che indica un newsgroup moderato. <sect>Configurare Newsx <p> Newsx fa riferimento ad un unico file per il download delle news che risiede in : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/ </verb></tscreen> La prima cosa da fare è loggarsi come utente news <tscreen><verb> su su news </verb></tscreen> e creare il file che conterrà i nomi dei newsgroups da scaricare dal server NNTP remoto. <p> Quindi, se il nostro server remoto è Tin editate : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/tin </verb></tscreen> se è Libero editate : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/ </verb></tscreen> se invece si tratta di Tiscali editate : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/ </verb></tscreen> Come già detto, il file dovrà contenere i nomi dei newsgroups che volete scaricare. Tenendo conto che negli esempi precedenti ho fatto riferimento ai gruppi <tt>it.comp.os.linux.annunci</tt> e <tt>it.comp.os.linux.iniziare</tt>, le righe da inserire saranno : <tscreen><verb> it.comp.os.linux.annunci -1 it.comp.os.linux.iniziare -1 </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Fetch degli articoli <p> Dopo aver lanciato la connessione, siete pronti per il download degli articoli dal server. Quindi, se siete utenti Tin digitate : <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/newsx --inn -dd -e stop --window 15 --rnews tin exit exit </verb></tscreen> per gli utenti Infostrada : <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/newsx --inn -dd -e stop --window 15 --rnews exit exit </verb></tscreen> per gli utenti Tiscali: <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/newsx --inn -dd -e stop --window 15 --rnews exit exit </verb></tscreen> Alla fine del download lanciate il vostro newsreader preferito, ricondandovi di puntare la variabile <tt>NNTPSERVER</tt> verso il vostro news server locale. <sect>Filtri <p> TODO <sect1>Filtrare lo spam con cleanfeed <p> TODO <sect1>Filtrare lo spam con NoCeM <p> TODO </article>