Inn2 + Newsx HOWTO <author>Filippo Panessa A.K.A. Kalem, <tt><htmlurl url="mailto:kalem@linuxfan.com" name="kalem@linuxfan.com"></tt> <date>ver. 0.2, 28 settembre 2000 <abstract> Questo HOWTO vi aiuterà a configurare Inn2 e Newsx per la lettura delle news offline. Per qualsiasi domanda, suggerimento, commento o correzione, scrivere a Filippo Panessa <tt><htmlurl url="mailto:kalem@linuxfan.com" name="kalem@linuxfan.com"></tt>. </abstract> <toc> <sect>Introduzione <p> <sect1>Nessuna garanzia <p> Ho scritto questo documento con tutta l'accuratezza possibile ma se usate le informazioni in esso contenute lo fate a vostro rischio e pericolo. In nessun caso potrò essere ritenuto responsabile di eventuali danni causati dall'utilizzo del presente HOWTO. <sect1>Copyright <p> Copyright (c) 2000 Filippo Panessa. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". <p> Copyright (c) 2000 Filippo Panessa. E' garantito il permesso di copiare, distribuire e/o modificare questo documento seguendo i termini della GNU Free Documentation License, Versione 1.1 o ogni versione successiva pubblicata dalla Free Software Foundation; senza Sezioni non Modificabili, con nessun Testo Copertina, e con nessun Testo Retro di Copertina. 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If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. <sect1>Distribuzione <p> L'ultima versione di questo documento è reperibile a questo indirizzo: <itemize> <item><tt><url url="http://web.tiscalinet.it/kalem"></tt> </itemize> <sect1>Revisioni <p> <itemize> <item>ver. 0.1 11 settembre 2000 <p> Inizio stesura del presente HOWTO <item>ver. 0.2 28 settembre 2000 <p> Aggiunto l'intero testo della licenza FDL <p> Aggiunta la sezione "Revisioni" </itemize> <sect> Perchè ? <p> <sect1> Perchè usare Inn ? <p> Esistono software molto più semplici da configurare per la lettura offline delle news, come ad esempio leafnode. Tuttavia, questi pacchetti software soffrono nella distribuzione delle news in una LAN con diversi clients. Se avete un solo PC, se non vi da fastidio perdere articoli saltuariamente, se non vi interessa una buona velocità nel download degli articoli, se non volete spendere tempo nella configurazione di Inn potete tranquillamente usare leafnode. Se invece avete la necessità di configurare un newsgroup locale per i vostri utenti, o più semplicemente volete il massimo dal vostro server news locale anche se magari non siete amministratori di una LAN, Inn e Newsx sono la soluzione. <p> Notate che Inn è utilizzato dai maggiori provider nella distribuzione delle news su InterNet : <tscreen><verb> [filippo@kalem ~ ]$ telnet news.tin.it 119 Trying 194.243.154.18... Connected to news.tin.it. Escape character is '^]'. 200 news.tin.it InterNetNews NNRP server INN 2.2.2 13-Dec-1999 ready (posting ok). </verb></tscreen> E non vi nascondo una certa soddisfazione nel leggere : <tscreen><verb> [filippo@kalem ~ ]$ telnet kalem 119 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to kalem. Escape character is '^]'. 200 kalem InterNetNews server INN 2.2.2 13-Dec-1999 ready </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Perchè usare Newsx ? <p> Sicuramente perchè è in grado di offrire un'ottima velocità di download senza ricorrere all'apertura di più connessioni in parallelo. Inoltre è in grado di filtrare lo spam sia con l'utilizzo di un filtro esterno quale cleanfeed, sia con software aggiuntivi come NoCeM. <sect>Requisiti <p> Tutto quello di cui avete bisogno è una Linux-box con connessione ad InterNet ed accesso ad un server NNTP remoto. <sect1>I pacchetti software <p> Se siete fortunati possessori di una Debian, potete tranquillamente installare Inn dal pacchetto relativo, cercadolo nel CD della vostra distribuzione o usando il comando apt-get. Dopo aver configurato apt basterà semplicemente digitare : <tscreen><verb> su apt-get install inn2 exit </verb></tscreen> <p> Dopo il dowload avrete Inn correttamente installato e pronto per essere configurato. <p> Purtroppo Newsx fornito con la Debian 2.2r0 non è compilato per Inn2. Ho prontamente risolto la questione sviluppando un pacchetto aggiuntivo non ufficiale. Lo potete reperire presso <tt><htmlurl url="http://web.tiscalinet.it/kalem" name="web.tiscalinet.it/kalem"></tt>. <sect1>Dove reperire Inn ? <p> L'archivio online ufficiale di Inn è <tt><htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.uu.net" name="ftp.uu.net"></tt>, in particolare nella directory networking/news/nntp/inn. Consiglio pero' di utilizzare il mirror Europeo per il download <tt><htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.xlink.net/pub/mirror.inn" name="ftp.xlink.net/pub/mirror.inn"></tt>. Inoltre Inn-2.x è disponibile in formato rpm e può essere scaricato dal sito ftp della vostra distribuzione. <sect1>Dove reperire Newsx ? <p> Il sito ufficiale di Newsx è <tt><htmlurl url="http://home.att.net/~bobyetman/" name="home.att.net/~bobyetman"></tt> dal quale potete scaricare sia i sorgenti che i pacchetti rpm precompilati. Ho sviluppato anche i pacchetti Newsx rpm, reperibili presso <tt><htmlurl url="http://web.tiscalinet.it/kalem" name="web.tiscalinet.it/kalem"></tt>. <sect>Configurare Inn <p> Tutti i file di configurazione di Inn risiedono in <tscreen><verb> /etc/news </verb></tscreen> quindi spostatevi in questa directory e armatevi del vostro editor di testi preferito. <sect1>Il file inn.conf <p> Nel file inn.conf risiede un considerevole numero di opzioni. Ci occuperemo di configurare le più importanti vedendole in dettaglio : <itemize> <item>server: <p> In questo campo deve essere specificato il nome del server NNTP locale. <item>fromhost: <p> Cosa mettere nell'header <tt>From</tt>. Se non specificato il default sarà l'FQDN. <item>pathhost: <p> Cosa mettere negli header <tt>Path</tt> e <tt>Xref</tt>. Anche qui il default è l'FQDN. <item>organization: <p> Overwrite dell'header <tt>Organization</tt>, se non abilitata la variabile <tt>$ORGANIZATION</tt>. <item>moderatormailer: <p> Dove spedire gli articoli per i newsgroups moderati, se non viene trovato un corrispettivo nel file moderators. </itemize> <p> Quindi dovete modificare questi campi nel seguente modo : <tscreen><verb> fromhost: kalem moderatormailer: %s@moderators.isc.org pathhost: kalem organization: Kalem Inc. server: kalem </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Il file moderators <p> In questo file devono essere specificati gli indirizzi per il post degli articoli verso i gruppi moderati. <tscreen><verb> # Per la gerarchia linux.* linux.*:linux-%s@news.lameter.com # Per la gerarchia it.* it.*:%s@moderators.news.nic.it # Per la gerarchia gnu.* gnu.*:%s@prep.ai.mit.edu # Per i newsgroups di cui non trova corrispondenza *:%s@moderators.isc.org </verb></tscreen> Non alterate questo file se non sapete cosa state facendo. Gli articoli per i newsgroups moderati potrebbero essere spediti ad indirizzi errati ! <sect1>Il file nnrp.access <p> Qui dovete specificare i nomi degli hosts a cui e' permesso collegarsi al vostro server Inn. Inoltre è possibile specificare per ogni host remoto userID, password e permessi in lettura/post. Ad esempio: <tscreen><verb> stdin:Read Post:::* localhost:Read Post:::* 127.0.0.1:Read Post:::* kalem:Read Post:::* </verb></tscreen> permette il post degli articoli al solo host kalem, con permessi di lettura e post. <p> Se avete una LAN dovete specificare l'accesso al server locale per ogni client. Oppure, se avete a disposizione un server DNS locale, abilitare tutta la sottorete con l'uso di una wildcard. <tscreen><verb> stdin:Read Post:::* localhost:Read Post:::* 127.0.0.1:Read Post:::* *.kalem:Read Post:::* </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Il file newsfeeds <p> Questo e' il file piu' complicato di Inn, ma con un pò di pazienza è facile capire i meccanismi base. Ipotizzando news.tin.it come server remoto da cui scaricare le news, avremo: <tscreen><verb> ME:*,!junk,!control*,!local*:: tin/news.tin.it\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: crosspost:*:Tc,Ap,WR:/usr/lib/news/bin/crosspost controlchan!\ :!*,control,control.*,!control.cancel\ :Tc,Wnsm:/usr/lib/news/bin/controlchan </verb></tscreen> <p> Vediamo i particolari del file : <itemize> <item>ME <p> Serve per distinguere i gruppi locali e di controllo (junk, control*, locale*) da quelli che risiedono sul server NNTP remoto. <item>crosspost <p> Crea un link nello spool (<tt>/var/spool/news/articles</tt>) per gli articoli spediti a più newsgroups. L'utilizzo vi potrà far risparmiare spazio sul disco. <item>controlchan <p> Usa un programma esterno per processare i messaggi di controllo dei newsgroups locali control.*, ad eccezione di control.cancel </itemize> Tenete presente che se il server NNTP remoto dal quale volete scaricare le news è Infostrada, dovete sostituire le righe <tscreen><verb> tin/news.tin.it\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: </verb></tscreen> con <tscreen><verb> news.iol.it/news.infostrada.it\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: </verb></tscreen> Per Tiscali invece : <tscreen><verb> draco.tiscalinet.it/news.tiscalinet.it\ :!*,it.*,comp.*\ :Tf,Wfm: </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Il file expire.ctl <p> Inn si occuperà di controllare periodicamente la cache degli articoli scaricati. Le regole per la durata degli articoli in cache vengono definite in questo file. <tscreen><verb> /remember/:10 # Default di 10 giorni *:A:1:10:30 # Newsgroup affollato di poco interesse # # Cancella la cache degli articoli # con più di 10 giorni di giacenza it.comp.os.linux.iniziare:A:1:10:30 # Newsgroup di alto interesse # # Cancella la cache degli articoli # con più di 45 giorni di giacenza it.comp.os.linux.annunci:A:1:45:60 </verb></tscreen> <p> Il file è di facile interpretazione, ma vediamolo comunque in dettaglio : <itemize> <item><tt>/remember/:giorni</tt> <p> Il numero <tt>giorni</tt> specifica per quanto tempo gli articoli devono rimanere in cache, anche dopo essere stati individuati come vecchi. <item><tt>pattern:modflag:keep:default:purge</tt> <descrip> <tag/pattern/ Specifica il newsgroup sul quale applicare la regola. Può essere accompagnato da wildcard <tag/modflag/ E' un flag per limitare la regola. In particolare <tt>A</tt> significa tutti <tag/keep/ Quanti giorni mantenere un articolo prima di rimuoverlo dalla cache <tag/default/ Quanto mantenere un articolo se non è presente nessun header Expire <tag/purge/ Tempo massimo giacenza articoli. Oltre questo numero di giorni gli articoli verranno cancellati comunque </descrip> </itemize> <sect1>Regole di cron <p> Per poter fare in modo che gli articoli vecchi vengano cancellati dalla cache è necessario lanciare ogni giorno lo script <tt>/usr/lib/news/bin/news.daily</tt>. <bf>Attenzione :</bf> è importante che questa operazione venga eseguita come utente news, quindi rispettate rigorosamente la procedura elencata. Avete due possibilità : <itemize> <item>Ricordarvi ogni giorno di lanciare il comando : <tscreen><verb> su su news -c "/usr/lib/news/bin/news.daily" exit </verb></tscreen> <item>Inserire una regola in cron lanciando il comando : <tscreen><verb> crontab -e -u news </verb></tscreen> </itemize> <p> e inserendo le seguenti righe : <tscreen><verb> SHELL=/bin/sh PATH=/usr/lib/news/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin 15 0 * * * news news.daily expireover lowmark delayrm </verb></tscreen> Nel secondo caso cron si occuperà di lanciare giornalmente lo script. <sect1>Riavviare Innd <p> A questo punto Inn è configurato. Basterà riavviarlo per confermare i cambiamenti fatti. <p> Quindi, se avete una Debian : <tscreen><verb> su /etc/init.d/inn2 restart exit </verb></tscreen> Se avete una RedHat o un'altra distribuzione simile : <tscreen><verb> su /etc/rc.d/init.d/innd restart exit </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Creare i newsgroups con ctlinnd <p> Riavviato innd, non vi resta altro che creare i gruppi che vi interessa scaricare. Quindi, se non se è già stato fatto dallo script di installazione dei pacchetti, create prima di tutto i newsgroups locali che serviranno per i controlli e per i test : <bf>Attenzione :</bf> è importante che questa operazione venga eseguita come utente news, quindi rispettate rigorosamente la procedura elencata. <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd control n /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd control.cancel n /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd local.test y /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd junk y exit exit </verb></tscreen> <p> ed infine create due gruppi che scaricherete da InterNet : <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd it.comp.os.linux.annunci m /usr/lib/news/bin/ctlinnd it.comp.os.linux.iniziare y exit exit </verb></tscreen> <p> Notate l'uso del flag <tt>m</tt> in coda alla richiesta di creazione icol.annunci che indica un newsgroup moderato. <sect>Configurare Newsx <p> Newsx fa riferimento ad un unico file per il download delle news che risiede in : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/ </verb></tscreen> La prima cosa da fare è loggarsi come utente news <tscreen><verb> su su news </verb></tscreen> e creare il file che conterrà i nomi dei newsgroups da scaricare dal server NNTP remoto. <p> Quindi, se il nostro server remoto è Tin editate : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/tin </verb></tscreen> se è Libero editate : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/news.iol.it </verb></tscreen> se invece si tratta di Tiscali editate : <tscreen><verb> /var/spool/news/in.hosts/draco.tiscalinet.it </verb></tscreen> Come già detto, il file dovrà contenere i nomi dei newsgroups che volete scaricare. Tenendo conto che negli esempi precedenti ho fatto riferimento ai gruppi <tt>it.comp.os.linux.annunci</tt> e <tt>it.comp.os.linux.iniziare</tt>, le righe da inserire saranno : <tscreen><verb> it.comp.os.linux.annunci -1 it.comp.os.linux.iniziare -1 </verb></tscreen> <sect1>Fetch degli articoli <p> Dopo aver lanciato la connessione, siete pronti per il download degli articoli dal server. Quindi, se siete utenti Tin digitate : <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/newsx --inn -dd -e stop --window 15 --rnews tin news.tin.it exit exit </verb></tscreen> per gli utenti Infostrada : <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/newsx --inn -dd -e stop --window 15 --rnews news.iol.it news.infostrada.it exit exit </verb></tscreen> per gli utenti Tiscali: <tscreen><verb> su su news /usr/lib/news/bin/newsx --inn -dd -e stop --window 15 --rnews draco.tiscalinet.it news.tiscalinet.it exit exit </verb></tscreen> Alla fine del download lanciate il vostro newsreader preferito, ricondandovi di puntare la variabile <tt>NNTPSERVER</tt> verso il vostro news server locale. <sect>Filtri <p> TODO <sect1>Filtrare lo spam con cleanfeed <p> TODO <sect1>Filtrare lo spam con NoCeM <p> TODO </article>