·  It is a Italian literary and artistic movement that inspiring each other to the French Naturalism and the Positivism theorizes a rigorous fidelity to the real reality (to the «true») of the situations, of the facts, of the environments, of the characters and a correspondence with the to feel and the to speak of the subjects that are represented. Calling each other to the French naturalism of the work of Emile Zola back, but also to Alexander Manzoni and to the "scapigliatura" the movement has the tendency to describe the life of the humble people, of the outcasts from the society that in the struggle are troubled for the survival, against the fatality of the destiny. 
Where and When 
· It is developed in the following years to the united one and continues up to the first decade of Nine hundred reaching full maturity in the eight hundred last thirty years. 
It was Elaborate ·within the vivacious Milanese environment where enough of were strong the influences of the European culture but it was widened to the whole Italy spreading each other in some regions more than in others: 
Sicily (de Roberto; Capuana; Verga) 
Campania (Serao; Of James); 
Sardinia (Deledda) 
Calabria (Misasi) 
Tuscany (Fucini; Pratesi; Lorenzini) 
Piedmont (Cagna; Giacosa; De Marchi; De Amicis) 
Friuli and Veneto (From the Ongaro, Caterina Percoto) 
· The different diffusion of the realism depends on the position of the regions in Italy, in how much the discovery of the reality of the realists concerns the two present extreme partner-geographical situations on the national plan: from a side Florence, provisional capital up to 1871 and Italian political center, from the other withdrawn Sicily, semifeudale and to a rural level still. Subsequently to Florence, where the first pages of the so many realistic novels were born, Milan is placed side by side, that c the most important city of the national entrepreneurial economy. Is characteristic  a great deal that the greatest realists are Sicilian (Verga and Capuana) and, at the same time, their formation happens in northern environment, above all to Milan: in the more active cultural center of the peninsula  they come to contact with the proposals of the French naturalism and they take conscience of their authentic vocation of writers. 
The Characteristics 
· Acceptanceof the scientific laws that regulate the in partnership life and the behaviors: the writer tries of to discover you read them that they regulate the human society, moving from the more low social forms toward those more tall, as the scientist does in the laboratory when he tries of to discover you read physics that are behind to a phenomenon to them. 
· attention to the reality in the dimension of the daily paper: the writer has a preference for a realistic and scientific narration of the environments and the subjects of the narration; 
· rather than to tell emotions, the writer introduces the daily situation as a scientific investigation, seeking the causes of his to evolve, that they are always natural and you determine (determinism or social darwinism); also the internal life of the man, explainable in terms psychopysiological, can be object of a scientific or social study: 
... the object they are the "human documents ", that is true facts, historical; and the analysis of such documents must have conducted with scientific " scruple "... (G. Verga) 
· the artist has to entirely inspire him to the true that is to infer the subject of his own work from events really happened and preferably contemporary, limiting each other to reconstruct them objectively or mirroring the reality in all his aspects and to all the social levels. 
· necessity of an objective and integral reproduction of the reality, according to that canon of the impressionality that is the application in literature of the scientific principle of her not interference of the observer on the observed objects (it derives from the Positivism); · because of the regional differences also represented by the writers the way to write changes in the realism giving space to the dialects, eliminating all the forms of rhetorical and academic refinement and introducing the linguistic imitation. 
The Rules 
· The artist has to entirely inspire to the truethat is he has to infer the subject of his own work from events really happened and preferably contemporary, limiting each other to reconstruct them objectively mirroring the reality in all his aspects and to all the social levels; it is the theory verghiana of the impersonality the narrator enters in his characters fully to tell human documents. · Il narrator is he who  picks up the quiver of the passions, of the sufferings andhereveals it, impassive, without blames or exaltations, putting each other partly for lasciar to speak the evidence of the facts the logic of the things,: theory verghiana of the impersonality
· The authors has to put in the skin of his characters, to see the things with their eyes and to express with their words to her. In such way hishand « will remain absolutely invisible» in the work. The reader will not have things the impression to feel a story of facts, but to assist to facts what they are developed under his eyes. · The  narrator, in the behavior to speak his characters, uses their language: a laced style, a simple and unadorned syntax, a country language and long live, continually intercalated by folksy and proverbial expressions that show the objectivity of the narration (without autobiographic intrusions). ·The language and the style have to be adherent to the characters, to the environments, drawing to the resources of the regional dialects possibly. The language has freed from every theoretical and academic refinement. · To respect is spoken of linguistic imitation of the author (camouflage = to hide in the surrounding environment in way from to not result visible). · Capuana rejects the subordination of the literature to purposes you express what the experimental demonstration of scientific thesis and the political and social appointment. The " scientificaly" doesn't have to consist in the to transform the narration in experiment to show the scientific theses, but in the technique with which the writer represents, that c similar to the method of the scientific observation. The scientificality is manifested only in short in the artistic form in the manner with which the artist creates his figures and organizes his expressive materials. · According to Verga, the artistic representation has to possess "the effectiveness of the being", it has to confer to the story the imprint of what really happened; to do this has to bring "human documents ". Even enough that  is told is real and documented, it also owes to have told in way from to set the reader does to face with the naked and sincere fact, in way that doesn't have the impression to see him/it through her "the writer's lens". For this the writer has to withdraw, that is he doesn't have to appear in the narrated with his subjective reactions and with his reflections. 
The Themes it is The Subjects 
The realistic writer: 
· is dealt with real daily situations, lived in the burning national reality that is: the southern populaces, the juvenile job, the emigration; 
· looks for the truth through the analysis of the subordinate classes, however the truth handed not to the progress but it discloses a sentence to death; 
· has a preference for the environments of the rural populaces because not yet contaminated by the prejudices of the social convention; 
· has a preference for the regional environments and the bourgeois social layers small; 
· the social environments are for the most part towns of province, of country, mines or environments of small and it mediates middle class and of impoverished aristocrats. 
·The Italian realism had a strong regional characterization and, since the Italian regional realities were deeply you diversify, different the themes and the environments were pure represented by the realists. 
· To the north, the greatest articulation of the social structure, with him to affirm, close to the elitist classes, of an average and small middle class constituted from professionals and from tied up clerical classes to the industrial apparatus, door to the amplification of the social base of the literature, that is to the number of the authors and the readers, parallelly to new to literary variety, from the novel of consumption to the novel of appendix. The new culture positivist the new uses and models of behavior tied to the technological revolution, move the attention on new human types and on new problems: protagonist of the novels and the theater, close to the farmer and to the fisherman, it is the employee (De Marchi). New heroes,  has been observed, they are the industrialist, the scientist, the physician and the teacher (De Amicis). The new themes are those of the family, fundamental cell of the society and those of the adultery and of the prostitution. ·To the south, the realism, not being you an urban proletariat or the slums of a tentacled capital city from to study, is interested in the humble life of the farmers and the shepherds with their elementary passions. To the world «nearly virgin and unknown, the world of the south and the islands, of the populaces farmers and artisans, dams in their opaque reluctanz to the forms and the statutes of the modern civilization, appears for so to say from the dark of an archaic civilization, survived oddly behind the barriers of a secular loneliness». This was finally the vocation of the Italian realism, and in the to withdraw the life of the farmers and the populaces the realism got its good results. Not at random the most representative writers of the tide, from Verga to Capuana, from De Roberto to the Deledda, they were southern or island.