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Psicoanalisi applicata alla Medicina, Pedagogia, Sociologia, Letteratura ed Arte

Psychoanalysis applied to Medicine, Pedagogy, Sociology, Literature and Arts

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Frenis Zero psychoanalytic journal 

Number 33, year XVII, January 2020





 By Giuseppe Leo 











Rivista "Frenis Zero" - ISSN: 2037-1853

Edizioni "Frenis Zero"

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Frenis Zero psychoanalytic journal 

Number 33, year XVII, January 2020




In this last number of our journal we published some papers sharing one common concern: in a situation in which psychoanalysis risks to suffer for a relative isolation from other psychotherapeutic approach and <<methodological links to biology, psychology and psychiatry, and, above all, lacking in sufficient empirical research to support the efficacy of psychoanalytic treatment>> (J. P. Jimenez, 2012, in "Psychoanalysis and its Borders, edited by G. Leo, p.127), we have to spread a psychoanalytic literature not solely based on hermeneutic principles, but open to confining fields of science (neuroscience, Infant Research, etc.) in order to strengthen "the evidence base of psychoanalysis" in accordance with which psychoanalysis <<should (...) develop closer links with alternative data gathering methods available in modern social and biological science>> (Fonagy et al., 1999, in Fonagy, Kaechele, Krause, Jones, Perron, "An open door review of outcome studies in psychoanalysis: Report prepared by the Research Committee of the IPA at the request of the PresidentUniversity College, London, p.45).

Christian Roesler in his article "Development of Research Designs for Investigating Concepts of Analytical Psychology and the Efficacy/Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy" maintains that what emerges in many outcome studies   << it is not the method which is crucial for outcome in psychotherapy, but the person of the therapist and how he/she succeeds in creating positive expectations in the client as well as in handling the therapeutic relationship. Especially the capacity of the therapist to adapt in a flexible way to the special needs of the client as well as to their changes over the course of therapy seems to be a crucial factor.>> (Roesler, ibidem). This implies that emphasizing manualized approaches, like the ones promoted by CBT, does not make really sense. It is important that candidated could be well trained  in order to become competent psychotherapists: this is a pre-requisite for any outcome psychotherapy project and study. 

Jakub Przybyla in the paper "Philosophical and methodological problems concerning neuropsychoanalysis" criticizes the idea of integrating neurobiology and psychotherapy based mainly on the study of psychoanalysis and neuropsychoanalysis. The author focuses on the philosophical and methodological problems which arise from attempts to carry out this integration. The article presents the view that this approach is a harmful reduction. It also proposes a look at the relationship between psychotherapy and neurobiology as an area of

 cooperation that avoids the confusion of theoretical languages.

Concerning neuroscientific understanding of memory processes, particularly in post-traumatic dissociative disorders, is the paper by Jelena Radulovic, Royce Lee and Andrew Ortony "State-Dependent Memory: Neurobiological Advances and Prospects for Translation to Dissociative Amnesia". The authors try to answer to the question of why memory for some traumatic experiences is compromised whereas other comparably traumatic experiences are remembered well. They introduce in their article clinical, cognitive, and neurobiological perspectives on memory research, in particular examining the role of state-dependent memory and discuss how advances in neurobiology of this kind of memory, gleaned from animal studies, might be translated to humans.

Closer to a clinical perspective are the papers by Beate Schumacher "'We are all born naked'- is the rest drag? Some thoughts on gender identity development and psychoanalysis", and by Pilios-Dimitris Stavrou "The Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Conjugal Life of a Young Woman and the Effects of the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy  as a Method of Treatment".  

Finally, Michael Forrester's article "Psychoanalytic Underpinnings of Socially-Shared Normativity" considers the proposal that psychoanalytic thinking might inform our understanding of how socially shared normativity emerges during infancy and early childhood. First, a framework is sketched out that highlights the fact that from the beginning, an infant’s earliest experience is bound up with those procedures, practices, and social actions that make up what conversation analysts call members’ methods. Second, comparisons are drawn between conversation analysis and psychoanalytic accounts of early experience for infants during the first years of life. Discussion then moves to the Kleinian notion of object relations and the concept of projective identification. Essentially, this is a theoretical account of how “what-was-once-one” (the mother-infant unit) somehow differentiates resulting in the gradual emergence of the “individuated being.” What is often glossed over in this account is the discursively embedded nature of projective identification; a process that is itself interdependent with the embodiment that makes up the infant’s lived engagement with the world. Whatever might constitute consciousness emerges from somatic, embodied, material-physical, tactile/affective experience – that is, a fundamentally social milieu. Ultimately, this raises the question of how transformation (i.e., from the social to the individual) occurs. One answer may be Winnicott’s idea of the transitional space, where the “good-enough” parent is said to be somebody, who can “contain” both negative and positive identifications coming from the infant, transform and re-project such identifications, but in modified form. In this way, the infant begins to recognize/experience what it is they are “feeling.” Such projective identifications are conveyed within and through the prevailing discourses that constitute all social practices. Concluding comments note that conversation analysis may find in psychoanalytic thinking a framework for understanding the interdependence between affect and action, given that in psychoanalytic thought, we find a thoroughly relational conception of human nature.    






































































































































Responsabile Editoriale : Giuseppe Leo

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